Archiving Superorganisms Termite Collections: Past, Present and Future
Termites (Blattodea: Termitoidae) live in colonies, and have complex social systems comprising of kings, queens, nymphs, soldiers and workers. They build elaborate nests, which provide vital functions for the success of the colony, including reproduction, nourishment, protection and dispersal. It is for this reason that the termite colony has become analogous with the idea of it being a multicellular individual: a superorganism.
Ecologically, termites are the primary invertebrate decomposers of dead plant material in tropical and subtropical terrestrial ecosystems. Recent research in the Soil Biodiversity Group has shown that termites may become even more important in a drying world, as they mitigate the ecological impacts of drought in tropical rainforests. Therefore, it is crucial to document and maintain excellent collections of termites, both biotic and abiotic elements.
In this talk, I presented data on the NHM termite collection and its complexities. As soft bodied individuals, termites must be stored in temperature controlled spirit collections. Termite mounds are dried and kept in temperature controlled cabinets and the nest collections are really useful when talking about termites to the general public. It is vital to have both of these components in a collection, as termite taxonomy uses morphological features of the soldier termite for identification of species, as well as the mound structure and geographical location.
In this talk, I evaluated: (I) Past Collections: How and where did it begin? (II) Existing collections: What shape are they in now? (III) Future collections: How to maintain specimens and provide alternatives for the coming generations?
These new citizen science projects were looking at insect communities in California; including “Pools Project” and “Antvasion!”. The “Pools Project” surveyed the insects in pools of participants, specimens were sent to the museum where I identified the insects/invertebrates to order and the ants to species using a key to the ants of California and antweb. “Antvasion” was a citizen science project which looked at the ants which are specifically found in peoples homes, with emphasis on the distribution and biology of the Argentine ants. We prepared and delivered “natural deterrents” including cinnamon, cayenne pepper and black pepper to participants to see if it would deter the pests.
I also helped to set up a stall for the weekly museum event called “nightlife” where I did talks to the public about entomology collections, ecology, ants and pest management, encouraging them to take part in the few practical activities we have set up at the table, including correctly handling and observing behaviour of argentine ants. As well as this, I did a presentation on “Women in Science” about becoming an entomologist.
The biggest mistake in the decisions I made whilst traveling was to spend only 8 days in Taiwan. Little did I know that it is an absolute gem, not only for its stunning natural history but also the friendly and welcoming people, and delicious food…
I was lucky enough to spend a day walking in Taroko National Park where I learned about the beautiful marble geology of the Taroko gorge.
After visiting Taroko, I went to 忘憂森林 in Nantou. It is known as the misty lotus forest – which was surrounded by tea plantations and a very peculiar swamp forest at the top of a very steep hill. Some referred to it as the daemon forest but I am not sure if that is its actual name.
Hopefully, I will return to this wonderful country again in the future.
I remember being amazed when I saw these Japanese Snow Macaques on the telly on a wildlife documentary. It was a great privilege to have had the opportunity to sit and watch these remarkable primates living their lives in the freeezing cold Japanese Alps. They’re incredibly unique primates and so adorable!
Hot springs for macaques to groom
Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata)
Japanese Macaques at a natural hot spring, Nagano
Natural hot springs where the macaques chilled out
Observing Japanese Macaques
Japanese Macaques at a natural hot spring, Nagano
Driving in the Japanese Alps
Interesting papers I found about Biology and Ecology of Japanese Macaques, Macaca fuscata:
Enari et al (2016) discuss the importance of Japanese macaque and other mammals’ dung burial in snow. When the snow melts the dung frozen dung is exposed and allows a time lagged mammal-beetle interaction. This is important for maintaining plant regeneration. The researchers found 12 dung beetle species which I thought was incredible considering the harsh conditions up in the mountains.
If you’re interested in behaviour a new paper by Kawakami et al (2017) investigated the spontaneous first smiles of new born Japanese Macaques. These involuntary lip-corner raises are considered to be the origin of smile and laughter, as we see in humans and chimps. There is also some older research by Hanya et al (2007) comparing the behaviour of two populations of Japanese macaques and evaluating how this influenced their thermoregulation throughout the year. Basically, they love to huddle and stay still! And… Sometimes… Even make snowballs (Eaton, 1972).
Japanese snow macaques have a huge part to play in the culture of Japan. Interestingly, they are seen as sacred and associated with the gods at the beginning of the 8th century. As time goes on however, and as humans develop and domesticate further, there is a shift towards monkeys being disliked as they became massive pests to agriculture. There are some great links on the wiki page with some beautiful monkey art!
Eaton, G. Primates (1972) Snowball construction by a feral troop of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) living under seminatural conditions : 411. doi:10.1007/BF01793660
Enari, H., Koike, S. & Sakamaki-Enari, H. J For Res (2016) 21: 92. doi:10.1007/s10310-015-0516-z
Kawakami, F., Tomonaga, M. & Suzuki, J.(2017) The first smile: spontaneous smiles in newborn Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) 58: 93. doi:10.1007/s10329-016-0558-7
Hanya, G., Kiyono, M. and Hayaishi, S. (2007), Behavioral thermoregulation of wild Japanese macaques: comparisons between two subpopulations. Am. J. Primatol., 69: 802–815. doi:10.1002/ajp.20397
Inquiline species are the “lodgers” of the zoological world. They take advantage of the nests that other species make and continue to live commensally with them. This could be considered analogous to parasites creating their homes within the multicellular hosts.
Think of the individuals that make up termite colonies, they consist of soldiers, workers, and reproductive castes and termite colonies are often referred to as “super organisms”. They are unable to survive on their own when outside of the colony and are entirely dependent on each other for movement and for nourishment via pheromone communication.
However there is a distinct difference between inquiline species and parasites, the latter causes damage to the host, whereas the “lodgers” just mischievously take over a section of the nest, creating little destruction to the well-being of the termite colony.
Mounds and nests are perfect examples of architectural excellence in the natural world, who wouldn’t want to live in the grand palace of the termites? In some species there are fungus chambers (a constantly topped up termite pantry) and the entire construction provides stable shelter and defence against predators for the rest of the inhabitants. Most importantly there is adequate climate control which keeps homeostasis in the mound, highly attractive attributes for insects who require stable environmental conditions, “when can we move in?” I hear you buzzing.
Unlike lodgers, inquiline species do not pay rent. My favourite example has to be that of the world’s largest bee, Chalicodoma pluto, also known famously as Wallace’s bee. This species was first discovered in 1859 by Alfred Russell Wallace in the Northern Moluccas in Indonesia. The type specimen was described by Smith in 1861. For a long time the species was considered extinct, as it had not been seen at all both by Indonesian locals and by research scientists. How can they miss such a huge bee? For a start, it is a beastly species compared tothe common honey bee, Apis melifera (Fig.1.) it should be easy to spot! Its sheer size also suggests that it must be making enough racket whilst in flight to make it difficult for their presence to go unnoticed…
The humble hymenopteran giantwas re-discovered nesting commensally with the arboreal species Microcerotermes amboinensis on three Indonesian islands in 1981 by Adam Catton Messer. It appeared that the C. pluto species were restricted to living in these termite nests and were not discovered in any other habitat. They do this by making tunnels large enough for them to enter the nest and cells to lay their eggs and store their food and frass, kicking the termites out of that section. Another bizarre thing about this species is that the morphology and adaptations of the mandibles were quite unlike bees, but more like stag-beetle mandibles, ideal for collecting resin from dipterocarp trees and pollen from flowering plants to feed their larvae back in the termite nest.
Another fascinating example of these inquiline intruders found in termite nests are the beetle larvae of Pyrearinus termitilluminans (Elateridae).The photograph in Fig.2 shows that the lights are on and someone is at home! It is not just the termites though… In Brazil the old nests of Cornitermes cumulansare the first choice habitat for these larvae as they excavate tunnels from the central to the outer layer of the mounds and poke their green luminous prothoraxes outside. The collective bioluminescence of the larvae creates a biological block of flats with the lights shining through the windows of the mound, which attract flying preys such as termite alates or formicid ants. The adult beetles only lay their eggs in nests that are greater or equal to one meter in height which increases the success rate of having a nice meal.
In some cases it is not even one single species but several species at a time that coexist successfully in the nests of termites. Are the termites troubled about sharing their nest with the world’s largest bee? Do they mind if those larvae enjoy some ambient lights in the evenings?
Imagine having a completely different species living in your home, like a gorilla living in your attic, what would you do?Inquiline species are an exciting area of entomology that would benefit from more research, both for termite and ant colonies. Who knows what other insect-lodger populations exist out there!
Bignell, D.E., Roisin, Y., Lo, N., 2011. Biology of Termites: A Modern Synthesis. Springer Publishing. DOI: 10.1007/978-90-481-3977-4
Costa, C. & Vanin, S.A., 2010. Coleoptera Larval Fauna Associated with Termite Nests (Isoptera) with Emphasis on the “Bioluminescent Termite Nests” from Central Brazil”. Psyche, Journal of Entomology. Article ID 723947 doi:10.1155/2010/723947
Messer, C.A., 1984. Chalicoma pluto: The World’s Largest Bee Rediscovered Living Communally in Termite Nests (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Soc. Vol. 57, No.1, PP 165 – 168
I was very lucky to undertake an internship with Tim Burkinshaw at Scarborough Borough Council. Tim is the Biodiversity officer and works in Parks and Countryside devision of the council where he manages many projects, including the Carrs Wetland Project. His job was very exciting and varied, ranging from carrying out ecological and archaeological fieldwork, working with farmers and locals as well as understanding and implementing environmental policy.
I worked one day a week during my third year at Hull University, Scarborough Campus. I had a role to play in the office where I helped to organise the “Biodiversity Action Plan” conference, which aims to help achieve the conservation objectives that are set for the Scarborough Local Biodiversity Action Plan, as a section of the UK wide action plan (UKBAP). Wetlands, habitats which include wet grasslands, woodlands, reed beds, fens and the drainage ditches network, are priority habitats, as they have unique wildlife and they’re threatened by agricultural development. The organisms associated with the habitats include water voles, otters, great crested newts and important aquatic/terrestrial plants/invertebrates.
Current Scarborough BAP actions which are carried out by The Carrs Wetland Project include;
Identifying wetland resources
Providing advice and developing proposals with landowners to create wetlands as part of Environmental Stewardship and other proposals
Incorporating wetlands as part of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems with planning consent
Providing practical assistance with farm management
As well as “Connecting for Nature”, during my time working in the office, I was also encouraged to plan fieldwork for the Young Entomologists’ Network where we carried out fieldwork on farmland and assessed the dung beetle diversity.
This role was so varied, I also had the opportunity to join in with the recording of the radio interview with BBC’s Sue Nelson and the University of York Archaeology department and wrote this blog post from the day:
It was a windy day in the Vale of Pickering when archaeologists Michael Bamforth and Becky Knight from the University of York and Ian Panter from the York Archaeological Trust were interviewed by Sue Nelson for BBC Radio 4 . The team walked along the River Hertford to view the field that harbours the Palaeo Lake Flixton under its turf, and visualise what the site would have looked back in the Stone Age.
Archaeology has become an interdisciplinary field of research which has benefited greatly in recent decades by utilising scientific methods such as chemical isotope analyses and radiocarbon dating. This short interview was conducted in the field and followed up in the chemistry labs at York. It focuses on the interaction of science and archaeology, and the impact of Star Carr in terms of Mesolithic discoveries.